edebug-on-error is a variable defined in `edebug.el'.
Its value is

Value bound to `debug-on-error' while Edebug is active.

If `debug-on-error' is non-nil, that value is still used.

If the value is a list of signal names, Edebug will stop when any of
these errors are signaled from Lisp code whether or not the signal is
handled by a `condition-case'. This option is useful for debugging
signals that *are* handled since they would otherwise be missed.
After execution is resumed, the error is signaled again.

You can customize this variable.