condition-case is a special form in `C source code'.

(condition-case VAR BODYFORM &rest HANDLERS)

Regain control when an error is signaled.
Executes BODYFORM and returns its value if no error happens.
Each element of HANDLERS looks like (CONDITION-NAME BODY...)
where the BODY is made of Lisp expressions.

A handler is applicable to an error
if CONDITION-NAME is one of the error's condition names.
If an error happens, the first applicable handler is run.

The car of a handler may be a list of condition names instead of a
single condition name; then it handles all of them. If the special
condition name `debug' is present in this list, it allows another
condition in the list to run the debugger if `debug-on-error' and the
other usual mechanisms says it should (otherwise, `condition-case'
suppresses the debugger).

When a handler handles an error, control returns to the `condition-case'
and it executes the handler's BODY...
with VAR bound to (ERROR-SYMBOL . SIGNAL-DATA) from the error.
(If VAR is nil, the handler can't access that information.)
Then the value of the last BODY form is returned from the `condition-case'

See also the function `signal' for more info.